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Johne's Disease (Paratuberculosis)

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

A crucial market, chronically under-served

Over 60% mortality

Highly contagious

$665 million annual global impact

High prevalence in Africa and Asia

Overview

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly infectious respiratory disease of goats caused by the pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. Symptoms include coughing, nasal discharge, high fever and anorexia, but these are often not specific enough to accurately obtain a positive diagnosis. The disease can be devastating to herds with morbidity reaching 100% and very high mortality rates of 60-100%. Though eradicated in much of the developed world, infections are currently endemic across 40 countries in Asia and Africa. Often it is poorer more remote herds with limited access to medical facilities, expertise and infrastructure which are most heavily burdened by the disease. These drawbacks have historically made CCPP a neglected problem with inadequate diagnostics.

Transmission

The infection is spread by aerosol and can rapidly be disseminated through a herd. Outbreaks typically occur when an infected but undiagnosed animal is introduced to the herd and subsequently becomes symptomatic and spreads the disease. Sheep as well as wild ruminants can also be infected, with some individuals remaining healthy while still spreading the disease. This leads to disease reservoirs capable of re-infecting herds and making disease eradication in endemic areas extremely challenging.

Disease impact

The global economic impact of CCPP is estimated to be $665 million per year. Costs are due to animal deaths, lost productivity and secondary costs such as the repurchasing or stock or inability to sell healthy animals. Goats are a comparatively underserved production animal despite their crucial importance to the livelihoods of millions of people.

How Biotangents are tackling contagious caprine pleuropneumonia 

Moduleic Sensing™ is not limited by environmental constraints and our Moduleic Sensing™ VET tests can be taken to remote areas. The simplicity of our system allows disease diagnosis with minimal training even in low resource environments

Biotangents have been working with Sidai Africa in Kenya and CIEL in the UK to develop a Moduleic Sensing™ diagnostic test for CBPP for the Kenyan market as part of an Innovate UK Agri-Tech Catalyst project. 

References: 

1. MSD Veterinary Manual. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia - Respiratory System. [Available from: https://www.msdvetmanual.com/respiratory-system/respiratory-diseases-of-cattle/contagious-bovine-pleuropneumonia]

2. GALVmed. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia. [Available from: https://www.galvmed.org/livestock-and-diseases/livestock-diseases/contagious-caprine-pleuropneumonia/]

3. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE); 2009. [Available from: http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/CONTAGIOUS_CAPRINE_PLEURO.pdf]

4. Nicholas R, Churchward C. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: New Aspects of an Old Disease. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 2011;59(3):189-196.